Transition to a sustainable energy economy requires an energy carrier, which may enable large transfers of carbon-neutral energy. Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier that can have a positive impact on the entire energy industry. However, hydrogen storage in large amounts is challenging. There are considerable challenges associated with achieving an economically effective hydrogen cycle. Whole hydrogen storage cycle includes hydrogen production, conversion, and processing into transportable products, transportation, and energy conversion into end-use products. This research service, ‘Disruptive Innovations in Production, Storage, and Transportation of Hydrogen,’ focuses on the emerging innovations and the latest achievements in the hydrogen storage area. 

The findings depicted in this study will help to drive the economic growth and technology revolution in the field of sustainable hydrogen storage. The study exhibits the major challenges faced by technology innovators in developing affordable and cost-competitive hydrogen storage technologies. 

The study presents a snapshot of promising technologies for large-scale hydrogen storage, such as compression, liquefaction, adsorption, hydrogenation, and synthesis. The discussed hydrogen storage technologies have been analyzed and a best-suited hydrogen carrier has been selected. Special attention is given to case studies of successful technology development and implementation, as well as and future technology roadmap. Additionally, it presents the performance analysis and evaluation of achievable hydrogen storage densities and energy demands of the different processes for storing and releasing hydrogen.

The growth opportunities in Production, Storage, and Transportation of Hydrogen:
  • Hydrogen will play an important role as an energy carrier in the future. Hydrogen will have a multitude of different end-uses and will contribute to the decarbonisation of transportation, industrial energy, building heat and power. 
  • Several chemical hydrogen storage technologies, specifically methanol, ammonia, and LOHCs, could possibly outmatch compressed and liquid hydrogen storage technologies due to their high storage density and less electricity demand of the total storage process.
  • Most technologies for hydrogen production, storage and transportation are still in either in the prototype or research phase, and insufficiently developed for mass production and market saturation. These technologies could potentially disrupt the market in the coming 5-10 years.
  • A critical barrier to widespread commercialization and market competitiveness of hydrogen is underdevelopment of the infrastructure for producing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel. Thus, its development is a necessary (although insufficient) condition for the development of the hydrogen market.

The study deeply illustrates the following:
  • Hydrogen production, storage and transportation – overview and current trends
  • Hydrogen Storage Cycle: From Production to Release
  • Key properties, drawbacks, major innovations, and research and development (R&D) activities in hydrogen storage
  • Snapshot of promising technologies for large-scale hydrogen storage
  • Technology benchmarking and performance analysis