The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated and emitted into the atmosphere continues to rise as a direct result of a series of complex interactions including population growth, improved standards of living, and expanding economies, and this is clearly demonstrated by both the increasing absolute level and the annual rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Climate change has caused widespread concern for stakeholders in several sectors, and responding to climate change has become a major element in the functions of all levels of government as well resulting in the formation of stringent regulatory framework. The need to reduce the carbon footprint, especially the reduction of emissions from industrial processes, is therefore identified as one of the greatest scientific and technological challenges of the twenty-first century.

Transition to a low carbon economy is being widely pursued by several stakeholders. In this research study, we perform technology landscaping to understand the range of technologies that can aid this transition. Technology landscaping will be performed across three stages in the industries – inward process stage, in process stage, and outward process stage. Focus Technologies across these three stages will include energy source substitution, process innovation, energy saving technologies, and CO2 emission capture and storage. The key carbon abatement goals and practices adopted by major stakeholders across industrial sectors such as oil & gas, iron and steel manufacturing, and cement manufacturing are analyzed to understand the current status and future developments.