1 INTRODUCTION 19
1.1 STUDY OBJECTIVES 19
1.2 DEFINITION AND SCOPE 19
1.2.1 INCLUSIONS & EXCLUSIONS 20
1.3 STUDY SCOPE 21
1.3.1 YEARS CONSIDERED 22
1.4 CURRENCY 22
1.5 STAKEHOLDERS 22

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 23
2.1 RESEARCH DATA 23
2.1.1 SECONDARY DATA 24
2.1.1.1 Major secondary sources 24
2.1.1.2 Key data from secondary sources 25
2.1.2 PRIMARY DATA 26
2.1.2.1 Key data from primary sources 26
2.1.2.2 Breakdown of primaries 26
2.1.3 SECONDARY AND PRIMARY RESEARCH 27
2.1.3.1 Key industry insights 28
2.2 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION 28
2.2.1 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH 28
2.2.2 TOP-DOWN APPROACH 29
2.2.3 MARKET PROJECTIONS 29
2.3 MARKET BREAKDOWN AND DATA TRIANGULATION 30
2.4 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 31
2.4.1 ASSUMPTIONS 31
2.4.2 LIMITATIONS 31

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 32

4 PREMIUM INSIGHTS 37
4.1 ATTRACTIVE MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN AUV MARKET 37
4.2 PAYLOAD-MOUNTED AUV MARKET, BY APPLICATION 37
4.3 PAYLOAD-MOUNTED AUV MARKET IN APAC, BY APPLICATION AND COUNTRY 38
4.4 AUV MARKET(EXCLUDING PAYLOAD), BY TYPE 38
4.5 AUV MARKET (EXCLUDING PAYLOAD), BY TECHNOLOGY 39
4.6 PAYLOAD-MOUNTED AUV MARKET, BY COUNTRY 39
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5 MARKET OVERVIEW 40
5.1 INTRODUCTION 40
5.2 MARKET EVOLUTION 40
5.3 MARKET DYNAMICS 41
5.3.1 DRIVERS 41
5.3.1.1 Increasing capital expenditure of companies in offshore
oil & gas industry 41
5.3.1.2 Rising defense spending of countries worldwide 42
5.3.2 RESTRAINTS 43
5.3.2.1 High operational costs of AUVs 43
5.3.3 OPPORTUNITIES 43
5.3.3.1 Development and incorporation of advanced technologies in AUVs 43
5.3.4 CHALLENGES 44
5.3.4.1 Slow underwater survey speed owing to use of
acoustic communication 44
5.4 IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON AUV MARKET 44

6 INDUSTRY TRENDS 45
6.1 AUV VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS 45
6.2 AUVS FOR SWARM OPERATIONS 46
6.2.1 AUV FLEETS 46
6.2.1.1 Acoustic communication 47
6.2.2 CROSS-PLATFORM OPERATIONS 47
6.2.2.1 SwarmDiver by Aquabotix (Australia) 48
6.2.2.2 Lockheed Martin (US) launched UAV on command from AUV 48

7 AUV MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY 49
7.1 INTRODUCTION 50
7.2 COLLISION AVOIDANCE 52
7.2.1 SONARS 52
7.2.1.1 Sonars enable AUVs to not only detect obstacles but also avoid them 52
7.3 COMMUNICATION 53
7.3.1 ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION 54
7.3.1.1 Increase in use of acoustic waves for underwater communication 54
7.3.2 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 54
7.3.2.1 Satellite communication enables real-time data transfer
between operators and AUVs 54
7.4 NAVIGATION 55
7.4.1 COMPASS-BASED NAVIGATION SOLUTIONS 55
7.4.1.1 Rise in adoption of compass-based navigation systems in shallow water AUVs 55
7.4.2 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS (INS) 55
7.4.2.1 Rise in use of inertial navigation systems for deepwater applications 55
7.5 PROPULSION 57
7.5.1 FIN CONTROL ACTUATORS 57
7.5.1.1 Fin control actuators provide vertical and horizontal sideslips to
AUVs in addition to roll, pitch, and yaw controls 57
7.5.2 PROPULSION MOTORS 57
7.5.2.1 Propulsion motors enable forward and reverse motion in AUVs by controlling their thrusters 57
7.5.3 PUMP MOTORS 58
7.5.3.1 DC brushless motors provide variable speed control 58
7.5.4 LINEAR ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATORS 58
7.5.4.1 Replacement of hydraulic actuators with linear
electromechanical actuators owing to their reduced development and maintenance costs 58
7.5.5 BATTERY MODULES 58
7.5.5.1 Battery modules used in AUVs depend on mission duration, ratio of weight of batteries to AUVs, and operational depth 58
7.6 IMAGING 60
7.6.1 SIDE-SCAN SONAR (SSS) IMAGERS 61
7.6.1.1 Surge in adoption of side-scan sonar imagers for shallow water surveys for depth of up to 30 m 61
7.6.2 MULTIBEAM ECHO SOUNDERS (MBES) 61
7.6.2.1 Increased use of multibeam echo sounders for seabed mapping using bathymetry 61
7.6.3 SUB-BOTTOM PROFILERS (SBPS) 61
7.6.3.1 Sub-bottom profilers penetrate sediments on seafloors for detecting layers within sediments 61
7.6.4 LED LIGHTING 62
7.6.4.1 LED lighting is preferred over halogen lights owing to higher light output per pound of weight offered by it 62

8 AUV MARKET, BY TYPE 64
8.1 INTRODUCTION 65
8.2 SHALLOW AUVS (DEPTH UP TO 100 M) 67
8.2.1 SURGE IN ADOPTION OF SHALLOW AUVS FOR MAPPING, ROUTE SURVEYS, AND FISHERY OPERATIONS 67
8.3 MEDIUM AUVS (DEPTH UP TO 1,000 M) 70
8.3.1 HIGH-SPECIFICATION POSITIONING AND NAVIGATION AND
TRACKING CAPABILITIES OF MEDIUM AUVS LEADING TO THEIR
INCREASED GLOBAL ADOPTION 70
8.4 LARGE AUVS (DEPTH MORE THAN 1,000 M) 73
8.4.1 INCREASE IN USE OF LARGE AUVS FOR DEEPWATER MAPPING AND SURVEYING APPLICATIONS 73
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9 AUV MARKET, BY SHAPE 76
9.1 INTRODUCTION 77
9.2 TORPEDO 78
9.2.1 TORPEDO AUVS EXPERIENCE MORE DRAG THAN LAMINAR FLOW BODY
AUVS IN SHALLOW WATERS 78
9.3 LAMINAR FLOW BODY 79
9.3.1 INCREASED USE OF LAMINAR FLOW BODY AUVS IN MILITARY APPLICATIONS 79
9.4 STREAMLINED RECTANGULAR STYLE 80
9.4.1 STREAMLINED RECTANGULAR STYLE AUVS OFFER STABILITY AND HIGH ACCURACY FOR UNDERWATER INFORMATION COLLECTION APPLICATIONS 80
9.5 MULTI-HULL VEHICLE 81
9.5.1 MULTI-HULL VEHICLE AUVS COVER MORE SURFACE AREA AND EXPERIENCE MORE DRAG THAN OTHER AUV TYPES 81

10 AUV PAYLOAD MARKET, BY PAYLOAD TYPE 83
10.1 INTRODUCTION 84
10.2 CAMERAS 85
10.2.1 HIGH-RESOLUTION DIGITAL STILL CAMERAS 86
10.2.1.1 Increased use of high-resolution digital still cameras for monitoring fixed assets down to depth of 4,000 m 86
10.2.2 DUAL-EYE CAMERAS 86
10.2.2.1 Dual-eye cameras enable formation of 3-dimensional images 86
10.3 SENSORS 86
10.3.1 CONDUCTIVITY (SALINITY), TEMPERATURE, AND DEPTH (CTD) SENSORS 87
10.3.1.1 CTD sensors allow biologists to understand underwater habitats
and water composition 87
10.3.2 BIOGEOCHEMICAL SENSORS 87
10.3.2.1 Turbulence probes 87
10.3.2.1.1 Increased used of turbulence probes for understanding marine life and environmental changes 87
10.3.2.2 Sensors for oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll, and photosynthetically
active radiation (PAR) 88
10.3.2.2.1 Demand for sensors to measure oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in water to understand health, composition, and ecological status of water bodies 88
10.4 SYNTHETIC APERTURE SONARS 88
10.4.1 INCREASED USE OF SYNTHETIC APERTURE SONARS IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC IMAGING 88
10.5 ECHO SOUNDERS 89
10.5.1 ECHO SOUNDERS ENABLE OPERATORS OF AUVS TO EXPLORE AREAS
AHEAD OF AUVS 89
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10.6 ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILERS 90
10.6.1 INCREASED USE OF ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILERS TO
MEASURE CURRENT VELOCITIES AND DEPTH OF WATER 90
10.7 OTHERS 91
11 AUV MARKET, BY APPLICATION 93
11.1 INTRODUCTION 94
11.2 MILITARY & DEFENSE 96
11.2.1 BORDER SECURITY AND SURVEILLANCE 98
11.2.1.1 AUVs are equipped with sonars and cameras for border
security and surveillance 98
11.2.2 ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE 99
11.2.2.1 AUVs are ideal for challenges of anti-submarine warfare in
both ocean and littoral scenarios 99
11.2.3 MONITORING SMUGGLING OF ILLEGAL GOODS AND
TRAFFICKING OF HUMANS 99
11.2.3.1 AUVs are equipped with payloads such as navigation
systems, cameras, and communication equipment for tracking
illegal activities 99
11.2.4 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 99
11.2.4.1 AUVs can collect information pertaining to current, tides, turbulence, ambient noise, and presence of obstacles and mines 99
11.2.5 MINE COUNTERMEASURES 100
11.2.5.1 Mine countermeasures include detection, classification, identification, localization, and clearance of mines 100
11.3 OIL & GAS 100
11.3.1 PIPELINE SURVEY 103
11.3.1.1 Data obtained with help of side-scan sonars can be used to detect and track pipelines in real time 103
11.3.2 GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY 103
11.3.2.1 Under geophysical surveys, AUVs? operations generally include traditional site inspections, route surveys, and hazard surveys 103
11.3.3 DEBRIS/CLEARANCE SURVEY 104
11.3.3.1 AUVs take lesser time for debris and clearance survey than
traditional methods 104
11.3.4 BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 104
11.3.4.1 AUVs are used for detecting natural seeps, classifying seabed types, and mapping habitats 104
11.4 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND MONITORING 104
11.4.1 HABITAT RESEARCH 107
11.4.1.1 AUV facility generates physical and biological observations of benthic variables that cannot be obtained cost effectively by other means 107
11.4.2 WATER SAMPLING 107
11.4.2.1 AUVs can be used for sampling water for various parameters such as temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen 107
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11.4.3 FISHERY STUDY 108
11.4.3.1 AUVs are used for measuring impact of overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution and toxin levels, and determining how to increase fish population. 108
11.4.4 EMERGENCY RESPONSE 108
11.4.4.1 AUVs can be used for post-hurricane assessment and
oil spill missions 108
11.5 OCEANOGRAPHY 108
11.5.1 AUV PROVIDES DATA ON TIME AND SPATIAL SCALES THAT WERE PREVIOUSLY INACCESSIBLE TO RESEARCHERS 108
11.6 ARCHEOLOGY AND EXPLORATION 111
11.6.1 AUV IS COST-EFFECTIVE TOOL USED FOR LOCATING, IDENTIFYING, AND SURVEYING ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES NOT ACCESSIBLE BY HUMAN DIVERS 111
11.7 SEARCH AND SALVAGE OPERATIONS 114
11.7.1 AUV CAN BE SIGNIFICANTLY USEFUL IN SEARCHING SHIPWRECKS 114

12 GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS 118
12.1 INTRODUCTION 119
12.2 NORTH AMERICA 121
12.2.1 US 123
12.2.1.1 In 2019, US held largest share of AUV market in North America 123
12.2.1.2 Rules and regulations for AUVs in US 124
12.2.1.2.1 In US waters, regulations on AUVs require them to be
in length ranges of 12 m to 50 m with masthead lights visible up to 5 miles 124
12.2.2 CANADA 125
12.2.2.1 Among all countries in North America, market in Canada is
expected to grow at highest CAGR during forecast period 125
12.2.3 MEXICO 126
12.2.3.1 Mexico has suitable geography for growth of AUV market 126
12.3 EUROPE 127
12.3.1 UK 129
12.3.1.1 UK’s Defense Science and Technology Laboratory has been creating awareness about AUVs by awarding contracts to various companies for demonstrating AUVs 129
12.3.1.2 Rules and regulatory aspects in UK 129
12.3.1.2.1 Maritime autonomous systems regulatory working
group develops UK regulatory framework for marine autonomous systems 129
12.3.2 GERMANY 130
12.3.2.1 Germany is developing new technology for AUVs for conserving resources by integrating emission-free, air-independent fuel cell propulsion systems with AUV modifiable underwater mothership 130
12.3.3 FRANCE 130
12.3.3.1 Among all European countries, payload-mounted AUV market in France is expected to grow at highest CAGR during forecast period 130
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12.3.4 ITALY 131
12.3.4.1 Italy mostly uses AUVs for exploring archeological sites in North Tyrrhenian Sea 131
12.3.5 SPAIN 132
12.3.5.1 AUVs are used for coastal surveillance and combatting illegal drug trade in Spain 132
12.3.6 REST OF EUROPE 132
12.4 APAC 133
12.4.1 CHINA 135
12.4.1.1 In 2019, China held largest share of payload-mounted
AUV market in APAC 135
12.4.2 INDIA 135
12.4.2.1 Among all APAC countries, payload-mounted AUV market in India is expected to grow at highest CAGR during forecast period 135
12.4.3 JAPAN 136
12.4.3.1 Japan has significant opportunity for AUVs in border security & surveillance applications due to it being an island 136
12.4.4 REST OF APAC 136
12.5 ROW 137
12.5.1 SOUTH AMERICA 138
12.5.1.1 Countries such as Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, and Columbia are investing heavily in offshore oil and gas drilling activities, thereby creating opportunities for AUVs in oil & gas industry 138
12.5.2 MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA 139
12.5.2.1 In Middle East and Africa, AUVs are mostly used for seabed mapping and offshore oil and gas exploration 139

13 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 140
13.1 OVERVIEW 140
13.2 MARKET RANKING ANALYSIS 142
13.3 COMPETITIVE LEADERSHIP MAPPING 142
13.3.1 VISIONARY LEADERS 142
13.3.2 INNOVATORS 142
13.3.3 DYNAMIC DIFFERENTIATORS 142
13.3.4 EMERGING COMPANIES 143
13.4 STRENGTH OF PRODUCT PORTFOLIO (25 PLAYERS) 144
13.5 BUSINESS STRATEGY EXCELLENCE (25 PLAYERS) 145
13.6 COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS AND TRENDS 146
13.6.1 CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS 147
13.6.2 PRODUCT LAUNCHES 148
13.6.3 PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATIONS 149
13.6.4 EXPANSIONS 150
13.6.5 ACQUISITIONS 151
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14 COMPANY PROFILES 152
14.1 KEY PLAYERS 152
(Business Overview, Products Offered, Recent Developments, SWOT Analysis, and MnM View)*
14.1.1 KONGSBERG MARITIME 152
14.1.2 TELEDYNE MARINE 156
14.1.3 BLUEFIN ROBOTICS 159
14.1.4 ECA GROUP 162
14.1.5 SAAB AB 165
14.1.6 LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION 168
14.1.7 FUGRO 170
14.1.8 ATLAS ELEKTRONIK GMBH 172
14.1.9 BOSTON ENGINEERING CORPORATION 174
14.1.10 INTERNATIONAL SUBMARINE ENGINEERING (ISE) 176
* Business Overview, Products Offered, Recent Developments, SWOT Analysis, and MnM View might not be captured in case of unlisted companies.
14.2 OTHER KEY PLAYERS 178
14.2.1 GRAAL TECH 178
14.2.2 BAE SYSTEMS 178
14.2.3 BOEING 179
14.2.4 L3HARRIS OCEANSERVER 180
14.2.5 HYDROMEA SA 180

15 APPENDIX 181
15.1 DISCUSSION GUIDE 181
15.2 KNOWLEDGE STORE 185
15.3 AVAILABLE CUSTOMIZATIONS 187
15.4 RELATED REPORTS 187
15.5 AUTHOR DETAILS 188