Hypersensitivity refers to abnormal reactions produced in human body by the normal immune system when exposed to an antigen. These reactions can be stimulated by physical (through sound, touch, smell, etc.) and/or emotional stimuli. Hypersensitivity reactions can be acute or chronic and may cause injuries, inflammation, discomfort, lifelong disorders or occasionally death.
Pemphigus, Myasthenia Gravis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus are some of the major hypersensitivity diseases. Broadly, hypersensitivity reactions can be segmented into immediate or delayed. Immediate reactions are also known as allergic reactions and they comprise antibodies, whereas delayed hypersensitivity reactions consists of T lymphocytes. Furthermore, hypersensitivity reactions can also be classified into four types: Immediate - Type I, Cytotoxic - Type II, Immune complex reactions - Type III and Cell-mediated or delayed - Type IV.
Immediate hypersensitivity is the most common type and generally includes allergies such as anaphylaxis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Allergies are fast or immediate reactions of the immune system when exposed to allergens. Pollen and certain food are considered as common allergens. However, changing lifestyle, increasing indoor and outdoor pollution, urbanization and dietary habits can also contribute to allergic conditions. An allergy towards drugs such as insulin and penicillin, known as drug hypersensitivity, is major prevailing concern around the world.
General symptoms of hypersensitivity include flu-like illness, rales, cough, chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, weight loss, fatigue, lung fibrosis, clubbing of fingers or toes, etc. Provocation testing, lymphocyte transformation tests, Skin testing and radioallergosorbent tests are required to diagnose diseases caused by hypersensitivity. Various molecular and immunoassays diagnostic techniques, which can provide quick and accurate test results, are also used to diagnose hypersensitivity.
Developments in clinical research, technologically advanced diagnostic devices, therapeutic products offering highly sensitive and accurate results, patent expiration resulting in affordable treatment and extensive drug pipeline are expected to boost the hypersensitivity market.
ASDReport.com has an extensive repository of reports on hypersensitivity. These reports cover various treatments and diseases related to hypersensitivity like, axial Spondyloarthritis, Corneal Graft Rejection, Kawasaki Disease and much more.