The petroleum value chain in South Africa is quite complex and is made up of many capital-intensive processes that often require costly infrastructure. Strategic management and appropriate infrastructure is vital to ensure an optimal flow throughout the petroleum supply chain. The challenge for petroleum companies is to maintain a balance between the stock of scarce products and production output in way that minimises costs and puts lesser risk on the security of supply. The South African petroleum industry, although well-defined, is gradually moving towards growing inefficiencies in its supply chain. The study focuses on the South African petroleum supply chain and evaluates its current and potential challenges. The aim of the study is to analyse the supply chain efficiency on a national level, assessing infrastructure from the transport system to refineries, as well as profiling major oil companies in South Africa that focus on the downstream refined petroleum products market and related businesses.