This is the second in a series of city case study publications as part of our Real-Time Cities Research Programme. It is becoming increasingly evident that cities have an opportunity to stimulate economic growth by opening up their substantial sources of data to digital service innovators. To become true real-time cities, they want to do more than simply publish existing information and processes online. Differentiation lies in the foundations they put down in terms of data strategy, governance structures, and partnerships. This study profiles the early-stage open data strategies of two European cities, Cambridge (UK) and Kazan (Russia). It provides an analysis of each city’s goals, activities with partners, and challenges.