Table of Content


Table of Contents
CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
MEMORY OVERVIEW
Introduction
The Memory Hierarchy
SRAM
Concept
Technology Evolution
DRAM
Concept
Technology Evolution
NOR Flash
Concept
Technology Evolution
NAND Flash
Concept
Technology Evolution
Hard Disk Drive Trends
STORAGE CLASS MEMORIES
Why Storage Class Memory?
M-class SCM
S-class SCM
PHASE CHANGE MEMORY
Concept
Basic Operation
Technology
Technology Evolution
Storage Element Structure
Material
Selection Device
Multi-level Cell PCM
Technology Scaling
Architecture
Silicon-Based Selector Designs
3D XPoint Design
PCM Cost Drivers
Electrical and Performance Characteristics
Set Time
Reset Current
Reliability
Endurance
Retention
PCM (3D XPoint) as a M-SCM
The Latency Issue
The Endurance Issue
Conclusion
SPIN-TRANSFER TORQUE (STT) MRAM
Concept
Basic Operation
Technology
Technology Evolution
Storage Element
Selection Device
3D Integration
Scaling
Architecture
STT-MRAM Cell Design
Sensing Schemes
Multi Level Cells (MLC)
MRAM Cost Drivers
MRAM Fabrication and Process Complexity
Cell Efficiency
Yield
Electrical and Performance Characteristics
Switching Time
Current / Power Consumption
Retention Time
Endurance and Wear Leveling
Write and Read Reliability
ECC
HAFNIUM OXIDE-BASED FERROELECTRIC MEMORIES
Concept
Basic Operation
1T1C FeRAM Implementation
Hybrid FeRAM-DRAM Memory Implementation (HRAM)
1T FeFET Implementation
3D NAND FeFET Implementation
Technology
Ferroelectricity In Hafnium Oxide
Scaling
Fe-HfO Memory Cost Drivers
Electrical Performance Characteristics
Switching Time
Current and Power Consumption
Endurance
Retention
Summary and Future Prospects
RERAM
Concept
Basic Operation
Technology
Storage element
ReRAM Cell Design Without Selection Devices
ReRAM Cell Design With Active Selection Device
Passive Selection Devices For Cross Bar Reram Cell Design
Architecture
ReRAM Chip Architecture
Interface Circuits for Reading and Writing
Cell/Array Efficiency
ReRAM Cost Drivers
Reram Fabrication And Process Complexity
Electrical & Performance Characteristics
Switching Time
Current and Power Consumption
Forming and Programming Voltage
Endurance
Retention
Variability
SCM COMPARISON
Electrical Performance Characteristics
Manufacturing Complexity
Cost per Bit
ROADMAP
SRAM
DRAM
FeRAM
NOR Flash Memory
MRAM/STT-MRAM
Phase Change Memory/3D PCMS/3D XPoint
ReRAM
NAND Flash Memory
MEMORY MARKET
Discrete Memory Market
Price Trend
APPLICATIONS FOR STORAGE CLASS MEMORIES
Introduction
Applications on the Memory Bus
SCM as a Memory Extension
3D XPoint
Storage on the DIMM Bus
SCM-based Storage DIMMs for Databases
SCM-based Storage DIMMs for Virtualization
Status
Applications on the Storage Bus
SCM Applications Outlook
Server DIMM (Memory Mode DIMM)
High Performance SSD
PC SSD
MEMORY AND EMERGING MEMORY PLAYERS
4DS
Adesto Technology
Avalanche Technology
Crossbar, Inc.
Cypress Semiconductor
Everspin Technologies, Inc.
Ferroelectric Memory GmbH
Fujitsu, Ltd.
IBM Corp.
Intel Corp.
Macronix International
Micron Technology
Nantero
Samsung Electronics
Western Digital
SK Hynix
Sony Corp.
Spin Transfer Technologies
TDK-Headway Technologies
Toshiba Corp.
Winbond Electronics
Weebit Nano
REFERENCES