1 INTRODUCTION 17
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 17
1.2 MARKET DEFINITION 17
1.3 STUDY SCOPE 18
1.3.1 MARKETS COVERED 18
1.3.2 YEARS CONSIDERED FOR THE STUDY 19
1.4 CURRENCY 20
1.5 LIMITATIONS 20
1.6 MARKET STAKEHOLDERS 20

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21
2.1 RESEARCH DATA 21
2.1.1 SECONDARY DATA 22
2.1.1.1 Key data from secondary sources 22
2.1.2 PRIMARY DATA 22
2.1.2.1 Key data from primary sources 23
2.1.2.2 Key industry insights 24
2.1.2.3 Breakdown of primaries 24
2.2 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION 25
2.2.1 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH 26
2.2.2 TOP-DOWN APPROACH 27
2.3 MARKET BREAKDOWN AND DATA TRIANGULATION 28
2.4 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS 29

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 30

4 PREMIUM INSIGHTS 35
4.1 ATTRACTIVE MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN THE GLOBAL FSO & VLC MARKETS 35
4.2 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF VLC SYSTEM 35
4.3 FSO & VLC MARKETS, BY APPLICATION 36
4.4 REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE FSO MARKET 37
4.5 VLC MARKET LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS, BY REGION (2015) 37

5 MARKET OVERVIEW 39
5.1 INTRODUCTION 39
5.2 HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF OWC 41
5.3 FSO MARKET 44
5.3.1 INTRODUCTION 44
5.3.2 WORKING 45
5.3.3 MARKET SEGMENTATION 46
5.3.3.1 By application 47
5.3.3.2 By region 48
5.4 MARKET DYNAMICS 48
5.4.1 DRIVERS 49
5.4.1.1 Last mile connectivity 49
5.4.1.2 No licensing required 49
5.4.1.3 Alternative solution to overburdened RF technology for outdoor networking 49
5.4.2 RESTRAINTS 50
5.4.2.1 Degradation of signals due to environmental interference 50
5.4.3 OPPORTUNITIES 51
5.4.3.1 Affordable extension in existing fiber network 51
5.4.3.2 Increasing number of space research programs 51
5.4.3.3 Replacement of old technologies with FSO technology for enterprise connectivity 51
5.4.4 CHALLENGES 52
5.4.4.1 Reliability issues due to fading of signals during propagation 52
5.5 VLC MARKET 52
5.5.1 INTRODUCTION 52
5.5.2 WORKING 54
5.5.3 MARKET SEGMENTATION 55
5.5.3.1 By type 55
5.5.3.2 By application 56
5.5.3.3 By geography 57
5.5.4 MARKET DYNAMICS 57
5.5.4.1 Drivers 58
5.5.4.1.1 Faster and safer data transfer than other competing technologies 58
5.5.4.1.2 RF spectrum bandwidth crunch 58
5.5.4.1.3 No bandwidth limitation and less energy consumption 59
5.5.4.1.4 Greener, cleaner, and safer technology 59
5.5.4.2 Restraints 59
5.5.4.2.1 Dominance of competing technologies 59
5.5.4.2.2 Short range and requirement of direct LOS 60
5.5.4.3 Opportunities 61
5.5.4.3.1 Global acceptance by electronic device manufacturers 61
5.5.4.3.2 Commercialization of the technology for two-way communication 61
5.5.4.3.3 Government funding 61
5.5.4.4 Challenges 62
5.5.4.4.1 Lack of technological awareness 62

6 INDUSTRY TRENDS 63
6.1 INTRODUCTION 63
6.2 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS 63
6.3 PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS 65
6.3.1 THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS 67
6.3.2 THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES 68
6.3.3 BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS 69
6.3.4 BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS 70
6.3.5 COMPETITIVE RIVALRY 71

7 FREE SPACE OPTICS MARKET 72
7.1 INTRODUCTION 73
7.2 FSO MARKET, BY APPLICATION 73
7.2.1 MOBILE BACKHAUL 75
7.2.2 ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY 78
7.2.3 DISASTER RECOVERY 79
7.2.4 DEFENSE 80
7.2.5 SATELLITE 82
7.2.6 HEALTHCARE 84
7.2.7 SECURITY 85
7.2.8 ENGINEERING AND DESIGN 87
7.2.9 OTHERS 88
7.3 FSO MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY 89
7.3.1 AMERICAS 91
7.3.2 EUROPE 93
7.3.3 ASIA-PACIFIC 95
7.3.4 REST OF THE WORLD 96

8 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION MARKET 98
8.1 INTRODUCTION 99
8.2 VLC MARKET, BY COMPONENT 99
8.2.1 LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE 101
8.2.1.1 Phosphorus LEDs 102
8.2.1.2 Red green blue LEDs 103
8.2.1.3 Resonant cavity LEDs 103
8.2.1.4 Organic LEDs 104
8.2.1.5 Microlens LEDs 104
8.2.1.6 Near-infrared or ultraviolet LEDs 104
8.2.2 PHOTODETECTOR 106
8.2.2.1 Photodiode 106
8.2.2.2 Image sensor 107
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8.2.3 MICROCONTROLLER 108
8.2.3.1 Modulator and demodulator 109
8.2.3.1.1 Modulation 109
8.2.3.1.1.1 Pulse width modulation (PWM) 109
8.2.3.1.1.2 Pulse position modulation (PPM) 109
8.2.3.1.1.3 Variable pulse position modulation (VPPM) 109
8.2.3.1.1.4 Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) 109
8.2.3.1.1.5 Color shift keying (CSK) 110
8.2.3.1.1.6 Frequency shift keying (FSK) 110
8.2.3.1.1.7 Orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) 110
8.2.3.1.1.8 Spatial Modulation (SM) 110
8.2.3.1.2 Demodulation 110
8.2.3.1.2.1 Diode detector: 110
8.2.3.1.2.2 Synchronous detector: 111
8.2.4 SOFTWARE 113
8.3 VLC MARKET, BY APPLICATION 114
8.3.1 SMART STORE 117
8.3.2 CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 118
8.3.2.1 Residential 121
8.3.2.2 Commercial 122
8.3.3 DEFENSE AND SECURITY 123
8.3.4 VEHICLE AND TRANSPORTATION 124
8.3.4.1 Vehicle-to-vehicle communication 127
8.3.4.2 Location-based service 127
8.3.4.3 Intelligent transportation system 129
8.3.4.3.1 Advanced traffic management system 129
8.3.4.3.2 Advanced traveler information system 130
8.3.4.3.3 Vehicle-to-infrastructure communications 130
8.3.4.3.4 Advanced public transportation system 130
8.3.5 AVIATION 131
8.3.6 HOSPITAL 134
8.3.6.1 Asset tracking 136
8.3.6.2 Patient tracking 137
8.3.6.3 Data monitoring 137
8.3.7 UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION 138
8.3.8 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENT 140
8.3.9 OTHERS 142
8.3.9.1 Street lights 145
8.3.9.2 Museums 146
8.3.9.3 Digital signage 146
8.3.9.4 Hotels and casinos 147
8.3.9.5 Logistics 148
8.4 VLC MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY 148
8.4.1 AMERICAS 149
8.4.2 EUROPE 151
8.4.3 ASIA-PACIFIC 153
8.4.4 REST OF THE WORLD 155

9 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 157
9.1 OVERVIEW 157
9.2 MARKET RANKING ANALYSIS 158
9.3 COMPETITIVE SCENARIO 160
9.3.1 NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES 161
9.3.2 ACQUISITIONS, AGREEMENTS, COLLABORATIONS, AND PARTNERSHIPS 162

10 COMPANY PROFILES 164
(Overview, Products and Services, Financials, Strategy & Development)*
10.1 FSO MARKET PLAYERS 164
10.1.1 LIGHTPOINTE COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 164
10.1.2 FSONA NETWORKS CORP. 167
10.1.3 CANON INC. 170
10.1.4 PLAINTREE SYSTEMS INC. 172
10.1.5 WIRELESS EXCELLENCE LIMITED 174
10.1.6 AOPTIX TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 175
10.1.7 COMMUNICATION BY LIGHT GMBH 177
10.1.8 PAV DATA SYSTEMS LTD. 178
10.1.9 TRIMBLE HUNGARY KFT. 179
10.1.10 OPTELIX WIRELESS 181
10.2 VLC MARKET PLAYERS 182
10.2.1 KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V. 182
10.2.2 GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 185
10.2.3 BYTELIGHT, INC. 188
10.2.4 QUALCOMM INC. 190
10.2.5 PANASONIC CORP. 192
10.2.6 FUJITSU LTD. 194
10.2.7 RENESAS ELECTRONICS CORP. 196
10.2.8 LVX SYSTEM 198
10.2.9 OLEDCOMM 199
10.2.10 PURELIFI LTD. 200
10.2.11 LIGHTBEE CORP. 202
10.2.12 OUTSTANDING TECHNOLOGY CORP. 204
10.2.13 AXRTEK 205
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10.2.14 IBSENTELECOM LTD. 206
10.2.15 SUPREME ARCHITECTURE INC. 207
*Details on Overview, Products and Services, Financials, Strategy & Development might not be Captured in case of Unlisted Companies.
11 APPENDIX 208
11.1 INSIGHTS OF INDUSTRY EXPERTS 208
11.2 DISCUSSION GUIDE 209
11.3 INTRODUCING RT: REAL-TIME MARKET INTELLIGENCE 213
11.4 AVAILABLE CUSTOMIZATIONS 215
11.5 RELATED REPORTS 215
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